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  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a slowly progressing cancer of a type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte. It can develop at any age but is more typically detected in middle-aged to senior dogs. It also seems to be more prevalent in German Shepherds and Golden Retrievers. This disease is often asymptomatic and detected on routine lab screening. Further diagnostic procedures, as well as treatments and prognoses, are described in this handout.

  • Cidofovir ophthalmic is a topical antiviral medication used to treat viral eye infections, such as feline herpesvirus-1, in cats. This medication must be compounded by a veterinarian or veterinary pharmacy before use in cats. Side effects may include a mild stinging sensation or redness of the eyes. Pregnant women should not handle this medication.

  • Clonidine is a medication that is used to treat behavioral disorders in dogs, particularly anxiety or phobia-related. Give as directed. Side effects are generally mild if present and include sedation, lethargy, agitation/excitation, aggression, and constipation. Monitoring blood pressure as well as heart rate and rhythm is recommended with chronic use. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Dexmedetomidine is a sedative/tranquilizer used primarily in cats and dogs as a pre-medication injection for anesthesia or for chemical restraint. It is also used orally in dogs for short-term anxiety management. The most common side effect is a low heart rate. Dexmedetomidine should not be used in patients with severe heart liver or kidney disease. It should be used cautiously in young, old, or weak animals. Consult your veterinary office immediately if you suspect a negative reaction or overdose.

  • Diabetes insipidus is rare in cats and is characterized by excessive drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Despite drinking large volumes of water, the cat can become dehydrated from urinating so much. Increased drinking and urination are common signs of several other health conditions, so it is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to diagnose diabetes insipidus. While the condition is rarely curable, it is usually successfully controlled.

  • Esafoxolaner + eprinomectin + praziquantel is given topically on the skin to treat and protect against various internal and external parasites and prevent heartworm in cats. Side effects are rare but may include hair loss at the application site, gastrointestinal upset, skin reactions, or neurologic signs. Use caution in sick or underweight cats. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Frunevetmab is a formulation of feline anti-nerve growth factor antibodies used to control osteoarthritis pain in cats. This medication is given by an injection under the skin, usually at the veterinary clinic. Side effects may include vomiting, diarrhea, appetite loss, itching, scabbing and hair loss on the head and neck, and pain at the injection site. Call your veterinary office immediately if you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication.

  • Hepatic encephalopathy is a neurologic condition in cats and dogs that is caused by an underlying liver condition. It can cause lethargy, seizures, problems with balance and coordination, and coma. Common causes, methods to diagnose the condition, and its treatment options are explained in this handout.

  • A hernia occurs when a body part or internal organ protrudes through the wall of muscle or tissue meant to contain it. In the case of an inguinal hernia, these internal organs or structures have managed to make their way through the inguinal ring (an opening in the abdominal wall near the pelvis) to protrude into the groin area. The condition itself can be broadly classified as either acquired or congenital. In general, it is best to surgically repair an inguinal hernia at the time of diagnosis, as delaying can result in a more complicated and difficult procedure.

  • Ivermectin + pyrantel is a heartworm disease preventive that treats and controls hookworms and roundworms in dogs. Ivermectin + pyrantel is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, ivermectin + pyrantel is well-tolerated. Some dog breeds (e.g., collies, sheepdogs, and collie- or sheepdog-cross breeds) are more sensitive to ivermectin than others; your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of using this medication in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.