Content Library

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a slowly progressing cancer of a type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte. It can develop at any age but is more typically detected in middle-aged to senior dogs. It also seems to be more prevalent in German Shepherds and Golden Retrievers. This disease is often asymptomatic and detected on routine lab screening. Further diagnostic procedures, as well as treatments and prognoses, are described in this handout.

  • Cidofovir ophthalmic is a topical antiviral medication used to treat viral eye infections, such as feline herpesvirus-1, in cats. This medication must be compounded by a veterinarian or veterinary pharmacy before use in cats. Side effects may include a mild stinging sensation or redness of the eyes. Pregnant women should not handle this medication.

  • Clonidine is a medication that is used to treat behavioral disorders in dogs, particularly anxiety or phobia-related. Give as directed. Side effects are generally mild if present and include sedation, lethargy, agitation/excitation, aggression, and constipation. Monitoring blood pressure as well as heart rate and rhythm is recommended with chronic use. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • If a tooth is unerupted, it is at risk of forming a destructive dentigerous (odontogenic) cyst in the bone. Although unerupted or broken teeth can be painful, dogs rarely show obvious signs of pain. Dentigerous cysts, including and the original tooth must be removed carefully as to avoid compromising the bone, which can easily fracture during the extraction. Dentigerous cysts are preventable if unerupted teeth are addressed early in life.

  • Dexmedetomidine is a sedative/tranquilizer used primarily in cats and dogs as a pre-medication injection for anesthesia or for chemical restraint. It is also used orally in dogs for short-term anxiety management. The most common side effect is a low heart rate. Dexmedetomidine should not be used in patients with severe heart liver or kidney disease. It should be used cautiously in young, old, or weak animals. Consult your veterinary office immediately if you suspect a negative reaction or overdose.

  • Diabetes insipidus is rare in cats and is characterized by excessive drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Despite drinking large volumes of water, the cat can become dehydrated from urinating so much. Increased drinking and urination are common signs of several other health conditions, so it is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to diagnose diabetes insipidus. While the condition is rarely curable, it is usually successfully controlled.

  • Esafoxolaner + eprinomectin + praziquantel is given topically on the skin to treat and protect against various internal and external parasites and prevent heartworm in cats. Side effects are rare but may include hair loss at the application site, gastrointestinal upset, skin reactions, or neurologic signs. Use caution in sick or underweight cats. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Frunevetmab is a formulation of feline anti-nerve growth factor antibodies used to control osteoarthritis pain in cats. This medication is given by an injection under the skin, usually at the veterinary clinic. Side effects may include vomiting, diarrhea, appetite loss, itching, scabbing and hair loss on the head and neck, and pain at the injection site. Call your veterinary office immediately if you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication.

  • Hepatic encephalopathy is a neurologic condition in cats and dogs that is caused by an underlying liver condition. It can cause lethargy, seizures, problems with balance and coordination, and coma. Common causes, methods to diagnose the condition, and its treatment options are explained in this handout.

  • The most common cause of hip dislocation is blunt force trauma such as a fall or an automobile injury. Most dogs with a hip dislocation will have severe hind limb lameness and pain and may not be able to put any weight on the affected limb. A diagnostic radiograph will show the direction of dislocation and whether a fracture of any part of the hip joint has occurred. In many cases, it is possible to replace the femoral head in the acetabulum by manipulation under general anesthesia. If the femoral head has been successfully replaced and the correct post-operative treatment has been adhered to, it is unlikely that the hip will dislocate again.